In the recent past, an engineer faced with the problem of removing deleterious iron-bearing contaminants from a process stream had few alternatives. Magnetic separation was typically limited and only moderately effective. Magnetic separators that used permanent ferrite magnets, such as plates, grates, or drum-typed separators, generated low magnetic field strengths. These separators worked well in removing ferrous tramp iron, but were ineffective on fine paramagnetic particles. High-intensity magnetic separators that were effective in collecting fine paramagnetic particles used electromagnetic circuits. The separators were large, heavy, low-capacity machines that typically consumed an inordinate amount of power and maintenance.